Things that should be a certain way
In this lesson, we'll learn how to express the way things are supposed depending on what we mean by "supposed". While the first two grammar points 「はず」 and 「べき」 come up often and are quite useful, you'll rarely ever encounter 「べく」 or 「べからず」. You can safely skip those lessons unless you are studying for the JLPT.
Using 「はず」 to describe an expectation
1. ある (u-verb) - to exist (inanimate)
2. 日曜日 【にち・よう・び】 - Sunday
3. 可能 【か・のう】 (na-adj) - possible
4. おいしい (i-adj) - tasty
5. 帰る 【かえ・る】 (u-verb) - to go home
6. 彼【かれ】 - he; boyfriend
7. 漫画 【まん・が】 - comic book
8. マニア - mania
9. これ - this
10. ～ら - pluralizing suffix
11. もう - already
12. 全部 【ぜん・ぶ】 - everything
13. 読む 【よ・む】 (u-verb) - to read
14. この - this （abbr. of これの）
15. 料理 【りょう・り】 - cooking; cuisine; dish
16. 焦げる 【こ・げる】 (ru-verb) - to burn, to be burned
17. まずい (i-adj) - unpleasant
18. 色々 【いろ・いろ】 (na-adj) - various
19. 予定 【よ・てい】 - plans, arrangement
20. する (exception) - to do
21. 今年 【こ・とし】 - this year
22. 楽しい 【たの・しい】 (i-adj) - fun
23. クリスマス - Christmas
24. そう - (things are) that way
25. 簡単 【かん・たん】 (na-adj) - simple
26. 直す 【なお・す】 (u-verb) - to correct, to fix
27. 打合せ 【うち・あわ・せ】 - meeting
28. 毎週 【まい・しゅう】 - every week
29. ～時 【～じ】 - counter for hours
30. 始まる 【はじ・まる】 (u-verb) - to begin
The first grammar we will learn is 「はず」, which is used to express something that was or is supposed to be. You can treat 「はず」 just like a regular noun as it is usually attached to the adjective or verb that is supposed to be or supposed to happen.
The only thing to be careful about here is expressing an expectation of something not happening. To do this, you must use the negative existence verb 「ない」 to say that such an expectation does not exist. This might be in the form of 「～はずがない」 or 「～はずはない」 depending on which particle you want to use. The negative conjugation 「はずじゃない」 is really only used when you want to confirm in a positive sense such as 「～はずじゃないか？」.
Using 「はず」 to describe an expectation
Use 「はず」 just like a regular noun to modify the
1. 日曜日のはず (noun)
2. 可能なはず (na-adjective)
3. おいしいはず (i-adjective)
4. 帰るはず (verb)
· For the case where you expect the negative, use the 「ない」 verb for nonexistence
· Example: 帰るはず → 帰るはずがない
He has a mania for comic book(s) so I expect he read all these already.
This dish was expected to be tasty but it burned and became distasteful.
Because various things have been planned out, I expect a fun Christmas this year.
It's not supposed to be that easy to fix.
This meeting is supposed to start every week at 2 o'clock, isn't it?
「べき」 is a verb suffix used to describe something that is supposed to be done. This suffix is commonly defined as "should", however, one must realize that it cannot be used to make suggestions like the sentence, "You should go to the doctor." If you use 「べき」, it sounds more like, "You are supposed to go to the doctor." 「べき」 has a much stronger tone and makes you sound like a know-it-all telling people what to do. For making suggestions, it is customary to use the comparison 「方がいい」 grammar instead. For this reason, this grammar is almost never used to directly tell someone what to do. It is usually used in reference to oneself where you can be as bossy as you want or in a neutral context where circumstances dictate what is proper and what is not. One such example would be a sentence like, "We are supposed to raise our kids properly with a good education."
Unlike the 「はず」 grammar, there is no expectation that something is going to happen. Rather, this grammar describes what one should do in a given circumstance. In Japanese, you might define it as meaning 「絶対ではないが、強く推奨されている」.
There is very little of grammatical interest. 「べき」 works just like a regular noun and so you can conjugate it as 「べきじゃない」、「べきだった」, and so on. The only thing to note here is that when you're using it with 「する」, the verb meaning "to do", you can optionally drop the 「る」 from 「するべき」 to produce 「すべき」. You can do this with this verb only and it does not apply for any other verbs even if the verb is written as 「する」 such as 「擦る」, the verb meaning "to rub".
With cases coming out of depositors suing large banks, the Financial Services Agency decided it shouldprioritize relief for victims and urge banks to strengthen measures for crime prevention.
Grammatically, 「べく」 is really a conjunctive form （連用形） of 「べき」, similar to what the te-form does to connect another phrase. However, what needs mentioning here is that by changing it into a conjunctive and adding a predicate, the meaning of 「べく」 changes from the ordinary meaning of 「べき」. While 「べき」 describes a strong suggestion, changing it to 「べく」 allows you to describe what one did in order to carry out that suggestion. Take a look that the following examples to see how the meaning changes.
As we can see in this example, adding the 「準備をし始めた」 tells us what the subject did in order to carry out the action he/she was supposed to do.In this way we can define 「べく」 as meaning, "in order to" or "in an effort to". Similarly, 「べく」 might mean the Japanese equivalent of 「しようと思って」 or 「できるように」. This is a very seldom-used old-fashioned expression and is merely presented here to completely cover all aspects of 「べき」.
Moving on to yet another from of 「べき」 is 「べからず」. This is undoubtedly related to the 「ず」 negative ending we learned in a previous section. However, it seems to be a conjugation of an old 未然形 of 「べから」. I have no idea what that means and you don't have to either. The only thing we need to take away from this is that 「べからず」 expresses the opposite meaning of 「べき」 as an action that one must not do. I suppose the short and abrupt ending of the 「ず」 form makes this more useful for laying out rules. In fact, searching around on google comes up with a bunch of 「べし･ベからず」 or "do's and don'ts". （べし is an older form of べき, which I doubt you'll ever need.)