Japanese basic grammar topic Other Grammar

Other Grammar

Hopefully, you've managed to get a good grasp of how grammar works in Japanese and how to use them to communicate your thoughts in the Japanese way. In this final section, we'll be covering some left-over grammar that I couldn't fit into a larger category.

Using 思いきや to describe something unexpected

Vocabulary

1.    思う おも・う (u-verb) - to think

2.    ある (u-verb) - to exist (inanimate)

3.    昼間 ひる・ま - daytime

4.    絶対 ぜっ・たい (na-adj) - absolutely, unconditionally

5.    込む こ・む (u-verb) - to become crowded

6.    一人 ひとり - 1 person; alone

7.    いる (ru-verb) - to exist (animate)

8.    この - this abbr. of これの

9.    レストラン - restaurant

10.  安い やす・い (i-adj) - cheap

11.  会計 かい・けい - accountant; bill

12.  千円 せん・えん - 1,000 yen

13.  以上 い・じょう - greater or equal

This is a grammar I learned out of a book and was surprised to actually hear it used in real life on a number of occasions. You use this grammar when you think one thing, but much to your astonishment, things actually turn out to be very different. You use it in the same way as you would express any thoughts, by using the quotation 「と」 and 思う. The only difference is that you use 思いきや instead of 思う. There is no tense in 思いきや, or rather, since the results already went against your expectations, the original thought is implicitly understood to be past tense.

Using 思いきや to describe something unforeseen or unexpected

·     Attach 思いきや to the thought using the quotation 「と」.
Example:
あるある → あると思いきや

Examples

1.    昼間だから絶対込んでいると思いきや、一人もいなかった
Despite having thought that it must be crowded since it was afternoon, (surprisingly) not a single person was there.

2.    このレストランは安いと思いきや、会計は5千円以上だった!
Thought this restaurant would be cheap but (surprisingly) the bill was over 5,000 yen!

Using 「~がてら to do two things at one time

Vocabulary

1.    散歩 さん・ぽ - walk, stroll

2.    作る つく・る (u-verb) - to make

3.    タバコ - tobacco; cigarettes

4.    買う か・う (u-verb) - to buy

5.    行く い・く (u-verb) - to go

6.    博物館 はく・ぶつ・かん - museum

7.    見る み・る (ru-verb) - to see

8.    お土産 お・みやげ - souvenir

9.    つもり - intention, plan

This rather formal and seldom-used grammar is used to indicate that two actions were done at the same time. The nuance is a bit difference from ながら in that some or all of the time spent on doing one action was also used to do another action as an aside. Remember, ながら is used to describe two exactly concurrent actions.

The interesting thing about this grammar is that no verb is required. You can just attach it a noun, and the verb "to do" is inferred. For instance, "while taking a stroll" can simply be expressed as 散歩がてら. In the case where you want to employ a different verb, you also have the option of attaching がてら to the stem similar to the ながら usage. In addition, the verb or noun that is accompanied by がてら is the main action while the following action is the one done on the side.

Using 「~がてら to do two things at one time

·     Attach がてら to the noun or verb stem of the main action. In case of a noun, the verb する is inferred.
Examples

1.    散歩散歩がてら

2.    作る → 作りがてら

Examples

1.    散歩がてら、タバコを買いに行きました
While taking a stroll, I also used that time to buy cigarettes.

2.    博物館を見がてらに、お土産を買うつもりです
While seeing the museum, I plan to also use that time to buy souvenirs.

Using 「~あげく(挙句)」 to describe a bad result

Vocabulary

1.    挙句 あげ・く - in the end (after a long process); at last

2.    喧嘩 けん・か - quarrel

3.    考える かんが・える (ru-verb) - to think

4.    事情 じ・じょう - circumstances

5.    時間 【~じ・かん - counter for span of hours

6.    掛ける か・ける (ru-verb) - to hang; to take (time, money)

7.    説明 せつ・めい - explanation

8.    する (exception) - to do

9.    納得 なっ・とく - understanding; agreement

10.  もらう (u-verb) - to receive

11.  先生 せん・せい - teacher

12.  相談 そう・だん - consultation

13.  退学 たい・がく - dropping out of school

14.  こと - event, matter

あげく is a grammar used to describe a result, usually negative, that came about after a great deal of effort. The rule for this grammar is very simple. You modify the verb or noun that was carried out with あげく and then describe the final result that came about from that verb or noun. Because this grammar is used to describe a result from an action already completed, it is used with the past tense of the verb. あげく is essentially treated the same as any noun. In other words, you would need the 「の」 particle to modify another noun.

あげくの果て is another stronger version of this grammar.

Using 「~あげく to describe a final result

·     Attach あげく to the verb or noun that created the end result (「の」 particle is required for nouns
Examples

1.    けんかけんかのあげく

2.    考えた考えたあげく

Examples

1.    事情を2時間かけて説明したあげく、納得してもらえなかった。
(After a great deal of) explaining the circumstances for 2 hours, (in the end), couldn't receive understanding.

2.    先生と相談のあげく、退学をしないことにした
(After much) consulting with teacher, (in the end), decided on not dropping out of school.

 

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Basic grammar

  • 1 :Addressing People
  • 2 :Adjective Practice Exercises
  • 3 :Adjectives
  • 4 :Advanced proximity of actions
  • 5 :Advanced Topics
  • 6 :Advanced Volitional
  • 7 :Adverbs and Sentence-ending particles
  • 8 :Basic Grammar
  • 9 :Casual Patterns and Slang
  • 10 :Causative and Passive Verbs
  • 11 :Compound Sentences
  • 12 :Conditionals
  • 13 :Covered by something
  • 14 :Defining and Describing
  • 15 :Desire and Suggestions
  • 16 :Essential Grammar
  • 17 :Expressing amounts
  • 18 :Expressing must or have to
  • 19 :Expressing State-of-Being
  • 20 :Expressing the minimum expectation
  • 21 :Expressing time-specific actions
  • 22 :Expressing various levels of certainty
  • 23 :Formal expressions of non-feasibility
  • 24 :Formal Expressions
  • 25 :Giving and Receiving
  • 26 :Hiragana
  • 27 :Honorific and Humble Forms
  • 28 :Hypothesizing and Concluding
  • 29 :Introduction to Particles
  • 30 :Introduction
  • 31 :Kanji
  • 32 :Katakana
  • 33 :Leaving something the way it is
  • 34 :Making requests
  • 35 :More negative verbs
  • 36 :Negative Verb Practice Exercises
  • 37 :Negative Verbs
  • 38 :Noun-related Particles
  • 39 :Numbers and Counting
  • 40 :Other Grammar
  • 41 :Other uses of the te-form
  • 42 :Particles used with verbs
  • 43 :Past Tense
  • 44 :Past Verb Practice Exercises
  • 45 :Performing an action on a relative clause
  • 46 :Polite Form and Verb Stems
  • 47 :Potential Form
  • 48 :Relative Clauses and Sentence Order
  • 49 :Review and more sentence-ending particles
  • 50 :Saying something is easy or difficult to do
  • 51 :Showing signs of something
  • 52 :Special expressions with generic nouns
  • 53 :Special Expressions
  • 54 :Tendencies
  • 55 :The Question Marker
  • 56 :The Writing System
  • 57 :Things that happen unintentionally
  • 58 :Things that should be a certain way
  • 59 :Transitive and Intransitive Verbs
  • 60 :Trying something out or attempting to do something
  • 61 :Using suru and naru with the ni particle
  • 62 :Using yoru for comparisons and other functions
  • 63 :Various ways to express similarity and hearsay
  • 64 :Verb Basics
  • 65 :Verb Practice Exercises